Hello World in R with RStudio

In the very first time you open RStudio, you will see a window called Console takes up the left side of your screen. The console begins with information about the current R version that RStudio is using, followed by a cursor where you would type your own commands into the Console.

Getting started with R console

Typing a simple 1+1 equation in the Console then hit Enter, you should see a response with the result like this

image-20201005075109061

The response [1] 2 you see above is called a vector.

Vectors is the main data structure in R. A vector is basically a list of objects of the same data type.

Operations in R often, if not always return answers in the form of a vector.

[1] 2 means a vector of one numeric data type with a value of 2.

Hello World in R

Now type in the console these characters with the quotation mark: "Hello World".

You should see this response : [1] "Hello World".

Like before, this vector has one item, which is a set of characters, or a string.

in R, we can use the letter c followed by a comma-separated list of objects of the same type to create a vector.

Try typing c("Hello", "World") into the Console and you should see a response of a two-element vector like this

image-20201005080108290

One may wonder why R console shows [1] while the response contains 2-element vector. The answer is R is saving screen space by only showing item numbers of each row of output. This behavior is better demonstrated with a bigger vector.

Try typing 1:100 into the Console and press Enter, you would see something like this

image-20201005082014924

1:100 in this case means "input all numbers between 1 and 100". The colon (:) is simply a shorthand for defining a range.

This time, the response shows that each row includes the item position of the data value in the first column of every row.

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